Social Welfare in India:
CENTRAL SOCIAL WELFARE BOARD: The Department of Social Welfare was created in 1964 and elevated to an independent Ministry of Welfare under Central Govt. and is responsible for general Social welfare.
The Central Social Welfare Board which is an autonomous body set up in August 1953 for distributing funds to voluntary social service organisations to strengthen,improve ad extend its existing activities in the field of social welfare and developing new programmes and carrying out pilot projects. It is also manning the task of exploring the need for and the possibility of implementing new welfare activities.
DEPARTMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT: Created in 1985, it formulates and implements policies and programmes relating to women and child welfare.
1) Integrated Child Development Services ( ICDS) scheme: It was introduced on Oct 2, 1975. Main objectives are:
a) improve nutrition and health status of children for age group 0-6 years.
b) To reduce incidence of mortality,morbidity,malnutrition,school drop outs
c) To achieve effective coordination of policy and implementation amongst various departments to promote through proper nutrition and health education, for looking after the normal health and nutritional needs of the child.
It also covers expectant and nursing mothers and other women in age group 15-44 years belonging to poor families. It works through anganwadi in every village or a ward of an urban slum area. Anganwadi workers are supervised by Mukhyasevika or Supervisor. The administrative unit of an ICDS project is a block/taluk in rural/tribal areas and a group of wards/slums in urban areas. Child Development Project Officer is incharge of an ICDS project and he/she has number of Anganwadi Workers and Mukhyasevikas under him/her. If the number of Anganwadi's are more then one or more Asst or Addl CDPOs are sanctioned to assist the head officer.
ICDS places great emphasis and relies greatly on involvement of local communities and coordinated efforts of different Ministries/Depts and organisations at all levels. A Central Technical Committee has been set up in AIIMS to study and monitor the benefits of social components of ICDS, also a Monitoring and evaluation Division exists in National Instt of Public Cooperation and Child Development. Eleven Technical Institutions like Home Science Colleges and Colleges of Social Work are associated for the same
2) Other Programmes:
Other Important activities and programmes of welfare dept for child welfare are:
1) Creches/Day Care Centre for children of working and ailing women
2) Early Childhood education centre
3) Anand Pattern Integrated Family Welfare Programme
4) National Award for child welfare
5) Mid Day Meal scheme
6) Children's film society, Bal Bhawans, children libraries, etc.
The Dept gives grants in aids to institutions engaged in field of child and women welfare. Children acts have been enacted to reduce child delinquency and reform them. Indian Council for child welfare has been set up to formulate and monitor child welfare programmes.
WELFARE OF OLD PEOPLE BY GOVT:
2) Provident Fund Scheme
3) Medical Allowances
4) Dept of Pension and Pensioners Welfare under govt. of India looks after problems related to its field of activity.
5) Old Age Homes
Voluntary Organisations involved: HelpAge India, Age Care India,etc.
WELFARE OF DISABLED:
1) National Institutes for the disabled under the Ministry of Welfare - National Instt for Orthopaedically handicapped at Kolkata, National Instt for Visually handicapped at Dehradun, National Instt for mentally handicapped at Secundrabad, and Ali Yavar Jung National Instt for hearing handicapped at Mumbai.
2) Rehabilitation Council: Under the Ministry of Welfare and prescribes syllabus for various training programmes, recognize training instts and maintains rehabilitation registers. The voluntary organisations like Spastic Society of India, etc. get grants from the Ministry.
3) District Rehabilitation Centres under the Ministry of Welfare who work in coordination with local voluntary organisations.
4) Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation under the Govt of India at Kanpur.
1) Loans available from banks at concessional ROI for handicapped persons to set up self employment ventures
2) 3 percent vacancies in group C and D posts in govt. and PSU reserved for disabled persons
3) ten year relaxation in age given to take advantage of reservation
4) Govt. special concessions for travel by bus,train and air to disabled govt/PSU staff as well as petrol subsidy for own vehicle.
5) Reservation by Ministry for allotment of petrol pump/gas agencies and oil depots to handicapped persons as well as for running STD ISD booths.
6) Priority to them in allotting govt. homes
7) Scholarships for school students and professional education
8) HMT produces braille watches
9) Free prosthetic aids or subsidy for the same
10) grants in aids to voluntary org working in these fields
11) Braille libraries run by govt or supported voluntary org.
12) Homes for mentally retarded and blind children have been set up in several states.
13) Sorts competitions organised and winners awarded prizes
14) Govt gives awards to social workers for their contribution in this field of work.
WELFARE OF DRUG ADDICTS:
Ministry of Finance ( Dept of Revenue) is responsible for enforcement of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act,1985.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare concerned with medical treatment of addicts. Publicity and media coverage is taken care of by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Dept of Education, Youth affairs and sports in the Ministry of HRD are also engaged in tackling this problem.
Various de-addiction centres and programmes are being carried out and also to provide employment to rehabilitated addicts by the govt. in coordination with voluntary organisations.